Phraseological Resource

for Academic Writing

BF | TWT

ZONE 1

写作必背短语 (雅思与托福通用) [链接 1] [链接 2]

ZONE 2

MONEY 金钱

economy n. 经济 (国家、社会层面,指生产 VS 消费); 节省, 节约
economic adj. 与经济有关的,与经济学有关的
economical adj. 省钱的
economics n. 经济学
economically adv. 在经济方面,在经济学方面,省钱地
finances n. 经济 (指金钱资源); 财政
financial adj. 经济 (指金钱资源) 方面的 financial independence 经济独立
amass a fortune 积累财富
disposable income 可支配收入 (disposable adj. 可以任意处置的;一次性的)
earnings n. 收入

WORKPLACE 职场

supervise vt. supervision n. 监督
under the supervision of sb 在某人的监督下
distraction(s) n. 令人分心的事物
work experience 工作经验
work history 工作履历
work performance 工作表现
working conditions 工作环境
career success 职业(生涯)成功
career path 职业(生涯)路径
career development 职业(生涯)发展
professional skills 职业技能
specialized knowledge (=expertise) 专业知识

employer 雇佣者;用人单位
employee 雇员;员工
staff 全体员工(已经是复数,所以没有复数形式,前面也不能加 a)
a staff member / an employee 一个员工
personnel 全体员工 (按复数计算); 人事部门 (按单数计算)

work efficiency
productivity n. 效率, 生产力
the efficiency in ….
boost / enhance / improve work efficiency
integrate resources
be more recognized by… = receive more recognition from …
enable sb to do
allow sb to do sth

communications failure(s) n . 通讯故障
superior(s) n. 上级;领导
motivating adj. 带动别人的;使人有积极性的

commute vi. 通勤 = travel from home to office and from office to home
commute between A and B
commuting n. 通勤

tele- = far
telecommute = work from home (vi.) = telework
telecommuting n. = working from home = teleworking
telecommuter = teleworker

a sense of crisis
self-development / self-advancement / self-realization
sharpen one’s competitive edge
sharpen one’s focus on …
adaptability
a strong will
perseverance

a solution to a problem
an answer to a question
a key to the door

pay attention to … 对……付出注意力
lay considerable emphasis on sth 对某事非常重视; 对某事非常强调
attach considerable weight / importance to sth 对某事非常重视

公司、企业
start-up (初创公司, 创业型公司)
business (任何企业、公司)
corporation (大型商业公司)
enterprise (企业, 侧重所做的事业)
company (公司, 侧重组织形式)

the professions = 传统职业 (律师, 医生, 教授等职业, 一般需大学学历 + 专业化的职业认证)
doctors, lawyers, or business leaders = people working in the professions
professional(s) n. 专业人士
expert(s) n. 专家
specialist(s) n. 专家
generalist(s) n. 多面手
expertise n. 专业知识
educational background 教育背景
equally excellent 同样优秀的
university qualifications / university credentials 大学学历
professional certification 职业认证
social progress 社会进步
root cause 根本原因
contributor(s) 作出贡献者 a contributor to sth 对……的贡献者
human race = mankind 人类
gain a foothold in society = establish oneself in society 在社会上立足

be fairly remunerated / recompensed / for one’s hard work 通过努力工作换来较好的报酬
increased disposable income 更多的可支配收入
to improve quality of life ( / standard of living) 提升生活质量/生活水平
living conditions 生活条件
improved education opportunities 更多受教育的机会
quality medical services 优质的医疗服务
can (cannot) afford material comforts (不)能负担得起物质享受
to elevate one’s social status 提升某人的社会地位

to invest more time and energy/effort in sth 投入更多时间/精力在某事中
to assume more responsibilities 承担更多责任
to take more risks 承担更多风险
a respectable / substantial / decent salary 一份体面的工资
a sizable proportion of … 很大比例的……

socialize with…
sociable
to acquaint oneself with sb / sth
= to be acquainted with sb / sth
communication; interaction
to exchange ideas related to work
to reminisce about the past
to express one’s attitude toward current affairs
to chat with each other about trifles in real life / at work / at school
to expand professional / social circles
to have more professional social contacts / connections

ZONE 3

FOOD 饮食

sanitary conditions 卫生条件 (hygiene n. 个人卫生 hygienic adj. )
cost(s) n. 成本
ingredient(s) n. 原料
quality (adj.) ingredient(s) 高品质食材
select (adj.) ingredient(s) 精选的食材
healthful = wholesome 有益健康的 adj (食物,生活方式,……)
healthfulness = wholesomeness n. 健康性 (有益健康的程度)
genetically modified / engineered adj. 转基因的
non-genetically modified / engineered adj. 非转基因的
organic adj. 有机的
preservative(s) n. 防腐剂
additive(s) n. 添加剂
artificial food colorant(s) n. 人工色素 (用于食品的)
foodstuff(s) n. 食品
food value n. 营养价值
food-secure adj. 粮食安全的
food security 粮食安全
food insecurity n. 粮食危机
food crop n. 农作物
recipe(s) n. 烹饪方法, 食谱
menu(s) n. 菜谱
cuisine(s) n. 菜系 (Japanese / Chinese / Italian cuisine)
cook(s) n. 厨师
chef(s) n. 主厨
cookery n. 烹饪
culinary adj. 烹饪的 culinary arts n. 烹饪技能

decline
(vt.) X decline Y:
X 婉拒 Y. = X refuse Y politely.
My friend declined my invitation.
(vi.) X decline:
X 减少 / 下降. = X decrease.
The population is declining.
(n.) a decline in X:
在 X 方面有所下降
X is in decline:
X 处于衰退中
There was a sharp / dramatic decline in the population in the 1950s.
The number of cartoons is in decline.

burden(s) 负担
X 给 Y 造成负担:
X lay (放) / place (放) / impose (强加, 负面) / inflict (带来, 负面) burdens on Y
= X burden Y with … (X 用 … 给 Y 造成负担): The government burdened the nation with heavy taxes.
= Y is burdened with … (被动, Y 承担某事物的负担): The nation was burdened with heavy taxes.

a great / dramatic financial burden

X 减轻 Y 的负担:
X lessen / ease / alleviate / mitigate / reduce the burden(s) on Y

负担 –> 压力 pressure (n.) / stress (n.)
Too much homework inflicts great stress / pressure on students.

ZONE 4

VERBS 动词类

sb be concerned with sth 某人觉得某事重要
sb be concerned about sth 某人担忧某事
sb attach great / much importance / weight to sth 某人觉得某事重要
sb attribute A to B 某人把A事物归因为B事物(觉得 B 是由A引起的)

meet 遇见 (人)
encounter 遇见 (人 / 事物)
come across 遇见 (人 / 事物)
be faced with … = be confronted with … 面临 … (被迫与…对视)
face sth = confront sth 着手面对某事物; (鼓起勇气) 正视某事物

search [a place] for [an object] 搜查某地的某物
search for [an object] 找某物
deprive [a place] of [an object] 剥夺某地的某物 => sb be deprived of sth 某人被剥夺某物 (某人被迫失去某物) ⚠️ deprive (vt.) 使…失去… deprive people of financial resources
rob [a place] of [an object] 抢劫某地的某物

facilitate vt. = make …. easier 使……变得更容易

使用 could have done / been 或 might have done / been 对过去的动作 / 状态进行推测

one’s impression of sth 某人对某事的印象 (名词短语)
the impression that sth make on sb 某物给某人留下的印象 (名词短语)
sth make / have impression on sb 某物给某人留下印象 (句子)

scientifically minded
like-minded
independent-minded

sb be accustomed to (doing) sth 某人习惯于 (做) 某事
= sb be used / attuned / adapted to (doing) sth 某人适应于 (做) 某事

A inflict B on sb
某物 A 给某人带来某物 B (负面)
Busy work inflicts great pressure on him.
The passing of her pet cat inflicted great pain on her.

A impose B on sb
某物 A 强加给某人某物 B (负面)
Busy work imposes great pressure on him.
The government imposes hefty taxes on small companies and corporations.
The economic crisis has imposed great impact on each country in Asia.

A add to B
某物 A 增加 / 扩大某物 B
Modern conveniences and material comforts have greatly added to (=increased) people’s well-being.
Our school has been added to (=enlarged).

be subject (adj.) to sb./sth. 受制于某人/某物; 听从于某人
*本活动解释权归本公司所有*
The rules are subject to our explanation.
be subjected (vt.) to do sth = be forced to do sth 被强迫做某事

prohibit sb from doing
= prevent sb from doing
= stop sb from doing
= forbid sb from doing | forbid sb to do
= interdict sb from doing
= ban sb from doing sth
= discourage sb from doing

avoid sb | sth | doing 避开某人 | 某事 | 避免做某事
= eschew sb | sth | doing

对某事的禁止
a ban / prohibition on sth; an interdiction of sth

result (vi.) (作为结果而)出现
E.g. A rise in food price resulted. (和 happen, take place, occur, appear 等是一类词)
–> resulting (adj.) 作为结果而出现的
a resulting decline in population 作为结果而出现的人口下降
result in sth 导致某事
E.g. Carelessness results in accidents.
= lead to sth
= give rise to sth
= lead sth to happen
= cause sth to happen
result from sth 源自于某事
E.g. Accidents result from carelessness.
= stem from sth
= originate from sth

「有」的表达方式

1. 警惕 have + noun 的逻辑错误或不清晰, 应该用逻辑清晰的动词.
❌ This job has a high salary. (粗暴的中文直译「有」, 导致逻辑错误)
✅ This job offers / promises a high salary. (正确逻辑的动词)

写作中, 仅当表示「拥有」或某些特殊用法时, 才可使用 have:
The student has much experience. (拥有)
People had no alternative but to wait. (拥有)
The lady is having a baby. (特殊用法: 怀孕)
We were having dinner. (特殊用法: 吃晚餐)
I will have my car fixed tomorrow. (特殊用法: have noun done, 让…被别人完成)
She had all guests waiting in the hall. (特殊用法: have noun doing, 让…一直做某事)
The school should have most students meet the standards. (特殊用法: have noun do, 让…做某事)
The teacher has many students to teach. (拥有, have noun to do, 有需要处理的人/事)

2. 警惕「there be」句型中双谓语动词的错误

表示「有某人在做某事」时, 「有」不能翻译出来, 不能写成 「there be」.
比如「有一个朋友总在我要睡着时打电话」:
❌ There is always a friend calls me when I am going to fall asleep.

尽管可以改成:
✅ There is always a friend who calls me when I am going to fall asleep.
✅ There is always a friend calling me when I am going to fall asleep.

但是, 此句型的出错几率非常高. 因此强烈建议, 直接删掉开头的「有」, 直接写「某人做某事」最为保险.
「有一个朋友总在我要睡着时打电话」
✅ A friend always calls me when I am going to fall asleep.
类似地,
❌ There are many problems need to be solved. (粗暴的中文直译「有」, 导致了双谓语动词的句法错误)
✅ Many problems need to be solved.

仅在表示某处有某物时使用「there be 句型」: There be sth prep n
✅ There is a tree behind my house. (「某处有某物」且没有谓语动词)
注意: 没有「there have」句型.
❌ There has a tree behind my house.

ZONE 5

everyday adj. 日常的 everyday conversations 日常对话 everyday work 日常的工作
every day 每天(时间副词)
except prep 除了……之外
expect vt. 期待,期望 expect sb. to do sth.
❌ hope sb. to do sth.
hope for sth
hope to do sth
hope that SVO

参与; 从事
take part in
partake in
be involved in
participate in
engage in

tourist industry n. 旅游业
tourism n. 旅游业

exotic adj. 国外的, 异国情调的

-ian: 人,……家
musican
physician
mathematician

proportion
property 财产(房产、不动产),性质,属性

direct adj. 直接的 vt. 指导
direction n. 方向;指导
director n. 导演;领导者

symbol
resemble vt. 与……相似;像
assemble vt. 集合;组装
assembly n. 集会;组装

waterproof adj 防水的(抵抗水的入侵)
waterproofing adj. 使防水的(让另外一个物体具有防水功能)

A consist of = include = incorporate = be composed by = comprise = be comprised by = constitute B
A 包含 B; A 是由 B 组成的

LACK vt.
sb lack(s) sth
She lacks the ability to deliver a proper speech.

LACK vi. –> LACKING adj.
sb is/are lacking in sth

LACK n.
sb is/are in lack of sth

It is (im)possible { that …sb. do sth…. }
It is (im)possible { for sb to do sth }

It is (un)likely { that …sb. do sth…. }
It is (un)likely { for sb to do sth }
Sb is (un)likely to do sth

❌ suggest sb to do sth
✅ advise sb to do sth 建议某人做某事
✅ recommend sb to do sth 推荐某人做某事
✅ suggest that 主语 + 动词原形 (虚拟语气, 不需要单三形式)
I suggest that he stop smoking.
✅ suggest sth | sb | doing sth 推荐某物/某人/做某事
I suggest taking a long walk after dinner.
I suggest Mary.
I suggest this book.

ZONE 6

比较结构 (X 和 Y 必须是有可比性的同类事物)

The weather in Beijing is hotter than Shenzhen. ❌
The weather in Beijing is hotter than that in Shenzhen. ✅ (都是 weather,但不是同一个weather,同类不同一,单数, 用 that 代替)
Students in Class One are more hardworking than Class Two. ❌
Students in Class One are more hardworking than those in Class Two. ✅ (都是 students,但不是同一批 students,同类不同一,复数用 those 代替)

Students in Class One are more hardworking when the teacher is in classroom than they are when the teacher is away. (都是 students,而且是同一批 students,同类同一,复数 they,单数 he / she / it)

Compared with / to X, Y …. 此句型为两极对比, 不是分级比较
(1) 注意形式 compared;
(2) X 和 Y 必须有可比性 (必须为同类型的事物, 对称平行);
(3) Y is ❌larger❌ 主句中如果有形容词或副词, 需要使用原级而不是比较级, 因为不可双重比较 (扩展: compare + larger, comparatively + larger, relatively + larger, larger + in comparison 等都构成了双重比较, 因此都要使用原级 large. 比较级 larger 则必须搭配 than… 结构).

Compared with Sun, Moon is small.
Compared with healthcare, education is important. 两极对比
= Healthcare is not important, but education is important.

Education is more important than healthcare. 分级比较 (比较级 than)
= Both education and healthcare are important, and education bears more weight.

Compared to high school students, college students usually have a concept of their career paths. 两极对比
= High school students have no concept of their career paths, while college students have a concept of their career paths.

X …(形容词或副词的比较级) than Y
Like X, Y….
Unlike X, Y….
Different from X, Y….
Similar to X, Y….
X bear much resemblance to Y

比较结构必须对称:
People giving money to charity are better than people keeping money to themselves. (给慈善事业捐款的人比把钱留给自己的人更善良.) —— 两种的比较

Giving money to charity is better than keeping money to oneself. (给慈善事业捐款比把钱留给自己更可取.) —— 两种行为的比较

ZONE 7

PARENTING / CHILD REARING 亲子教育

parenting skills 养育子女的技能; 为人父母
parent-child relationships
dictatorship 言听计从的关系
obey parents unconditionally
mutual respect / understanding 互相理解
allow children considerable latitude in making decisions 给孩子充分的做决定的自由

The shortage of money still exercised the CEO’s mind.

involve vt. 使……卷入….. involve sb in sth = sb be involved in sth

worry about being involved in trouble
= worry about involving themselves in trouble

Just because SVO does not mean that SVO. 只是因为……并不能说明……
Just because he rides a bike to and from work does not mean that he is financially challenged.

communication 沟通(抽象名词) communication skill(s) 沟通能力
communications 通讯 communications tool(s) 通讯工具
face-to-face adj. 面对面的,亲自的 face to face adv. 面对面地 Let’s talk face to face.

time for sth; time (for sb) to do sth

sth suit sb (/sb’s requirement) 某物适合某人 (/某人的要求)
sb be suitable for (doing) sth 某人适合某物
sth be suitable for sb 某物适合某人 (The toy is suitable for younger children.)
too adj. to do = so adj. that sb cannot do
adj. enough to do = so adj. that sb can do

人:a person (单数);many people 人们(复数);persons (一般不用)
民族,种族: a people (单数); many peoples(复数)
some people = 某些人 (复数)
someone / somebody = 某个人(单数)
everyone / everybody = 每个人(单数)
anyone / anybody = 任何人(单数)
no one / nobody = 没有人(单数)

on an annual / daily / regular basis 每年地 / 每天地 / 固定地

「数」v.s.「量」

数 —— number, 只针对可数名词
a number of + 复数可数名词, 很多…… (谓语动词用复数)
numbers of + 复数可数名词, 很多…… (谓语动词用复数)
the number of + 复数可数名词, …… 的 (一个) 数目 (谓语动词用单数)
the numbers of + 复数可数名词, …… 的 (多个) 数目 (谓语动词用复数)
numerous, innumerable 等与 number 相关的衍生词, 也都只修饰复数可数名词.

量 —— amount, 只针对不可数名词
an amount of + 不可数名词, 大量 ……. (谓语动词用单数)
amounts of + 不可数名词, 大量 ….. (谓语动词用单数)
the amount of + 不可数名词, …… 的 (一个) 量 (谓语动词用单数)
the amounts of + 不可数名词, …….. 的 (多个) 量 (谓语动词用复数)

quantity —— 可数、不可数均可使用
a large quantity of …
quantities of …

扩展语言点: Little v.s. Few

限定性定语 —— 加定语后, 名词范围缩小 —— 限定, 紧密结合, 不能加逗号 (指物用 that)
非限定性定语 —— 加定语后, 名词范围保持原样 —— 没限定, 松弛关系, 加逗号隔开 (不能用 that 引导)

ZONE 8

SCHOOLING / EDUCATION 学校教育

training n. 培训
periodical adj. 周期性的
regular adj. 定期的, 有规律的
valid adj. 有效的 (反义词: invalid)
well-established adj. 由来已久的, 存在时间很长的
breakthrough(s) n. 突破
cutting-edge adj. 前沿的
absorb vt. 吸收
arts n. 文科
sciences n. 理科
quality of teaching 教学质量
pedagogy n. 教学法, 教育学
pedagogical adj. 教学的, 教学法的
pedagogical skill(s) / art(s) 教学技能 / 方法 (= teaching method(s) )
culinary arts (= cooking abilities) 烹饪法, 烹饪技能
interact vt. 互动 (~ with sb.)
generation gap n. 代沟
eliminate / narrow / bridge the generation gap vt. 消除代沟
facilities n. (用于公共目的的、工作目的的) 设备
mutual adj. 互相的
understanding n. 了解; 理解; 知识 (~ of sth)
gain a full / profound understanding of sth 对……增进理解, 获得对……的全面知识
enhance mutual understanding 增进互相了解
transmit / impart / convey / communicate 传达, 传递
the transmission / impartation / conveyance / communication of sth (知识或消息等)的传递
把 A 用在 B 上: apply A to B

leadership
organizational skills
communication skills

respectable
considerable
sizable
high
substantial
decent

避免笼统形容词 convenient ,转化为具体形容词 –> portable , available , easy to operate, intuitive, ….

have enthusiasm about sth. = be enthusiastic about sth.
pay attention to sth. = focus attention on sth.

-ing / -ed 主动形容词 / 被动形容词

confuse vt. 使……困惑
confusing adj. 使人困惑的;令人不解的 —— 主动形容词
confused adj. 感到困惑的;感到不解的 —— 被动形容词

exciting / excited
surprising / surprised
interesting / interested
tiring / tired
boring / bored

historic adj. 有 (重大) 历史意义的
historical adj. 和历史有关的; 和历史学有关的; 在历史上的
A historic building is not necessarily historical. It might be a modern or future building.
A historical figure is not necessarily historic. He or she might be unimportant or obscure.

愿意做某事
be willing to do
= be eager to do
= be ready to do

不愿意做某事
be unwilling to do
= be reluctant to do
= be loath to do

从我的角度 / 观点看来,
from my perspective
from my point of view
in my opinon
in my view

从不同的角度思考
think from different / various perspectives / angles

expand / broaden / widen one’s mind(s) / horizons

theoretical knowledge
problem-solving abilities
abilities to solve problems creatively
critical thinking abillities = abilities to think critically

exchange views / insights
exchange views / ideas / thoughts / insights on a certain topic 就一个特定的话题交换意见

(heated) scholarly debate (激烈的) 学术辩论
reach a concensus 达到一致

an understanding of sth 对……的理解
to further / to deepen one’s understanding of sth 深化对……的理解

perception n. 洞察力; 看法
one’s perception of sth 某人对某事物的看法

dispute vt. 争论, 争辩
analyze vt. 分析
scrutinize vt. 仔细探讨, 仔细观察

classroom discussion 课堂讨论
in-class discussion 课上讨论 (after-class discussion)
a discussion session 讨论环节

ZONE 9

When we were in class, we listened to him.
(1) 状语从句 (when…. while …. if ….as …. unless… although….. where … once…)
(2) 从句主语和主语主句重合
(3) 从句的谓语动词包含 be 动词
以上三个同时满足,从句可以写省略句, 方法:把从句中 「重合的主语 + be」省略
When in class, we listened to our teacher.
= When [we were] in class, we listened to our teacher.

infrastructure
public facilities
hospitable / livable
inhospitable

attract sb to a place

avoid sb
avoid sth
avoid doing sth
❌ avoid to do sth
❌ avoid sb to do sth
prevent / prohibit / forbid sth
prevent / prohibit / inhibit / restrain / interdict sb from doing sth
forbid sb from doing sth = forbid sb to do sth

instruct sb to do sth
teach sb sth = teach sth to sb
educate sb to do sth = educate sb in sth
instill sth in sb
transmit sth to sb
communicate sth to sb
impart sth to sb

access vt.
(1) 进入 = enter (a place)
(2) 从电脑或数据库中获取 = obtain (data, documents, content on a website…)

access n.
(1) a means of entering a place
The building has a side access. The stairs give access to the attic.
(2) the opportunity or right to use sth
have (no) access to the Internet / the school library / …

noun + be + adj + to do (主动形式, 表被动含义)
The task is easy to finish. (这项任务很容易被完成 ❌ to be finished)

V-able / -ible = adj. 能被……的 ❌能……的
readable
❌ My son is only two years old, but he is readable. (readable = able to be read)
✅ My son is only two years old, but he is able to read.

accessible access + ible adj. 能被进入的、能被得到的、能被理解的、能被买得起的、…
= able to be entered / obtained / understood / afforded / …
= easy to enter / to obtain / to understand / to afford / …

relish a moment of joy
take pleasure in television programs and movies
binge-watch television dramas and movies
relieve one’s pressure from work and study
feel refreshed

A survive B
= A live longer than B

He was survived by two sons and his wife.他死后留下两个儿子和一个老婆.
She survived many hardships. 她战胜了很多困难活了下来.
She survived. 她战胜了很多困难活了下来.

be plagued with / by sth 受某事物的困扰

indulge in sth 沉迷在某事物中
indulge oneself in sth 自我沉浸在某事物中

NOT TO MENTION / LET ALONE 更不用说…… (需要平行)

He does not even own a bicycle, let alone / not to mention a house.
I do not even know him, let alone / not to mention admire him.

upset vt. 使……不安 (upset, upset)
The news upsets me very much.
I am upset (过去分词) by the news.
be upset 感到不安的

heart / skin condition 心脏病 / 皮肤病
ailment(s) 轻症, 小病

motivate / mobilize sb to do sth 动员某人做某事
demotivate sb from doing sth 打消某人做某事的积极性
impair efficiency / effectiveness 降低效率

a healthy outlook on wealth / values 对金钱 / 价值的正确观念

multinational n. 跨国企业
corporation n. 大公司
enterprise n. 企业, 事业 (某人所做的一件伟大的事情)
corporate adj. 企业的
corporate advertising 企业广告
commercial n. 商业广告 adj. 商业的

foster / cultivate an ability / a skill in somebody 培养某人的一个能力
the ability to do sth 做某事的能力
foster desirable / good qualities / personality traits in young children

deny sb sth 拒绝给某人某物
allow sb sth 准许给某人某物 (= give sb sth / grant sb sth)
ensure sb sth 确保某人会有某物
the access to sth 使用……的权利 (= the right to use sth)

corporate hierarchy
tier 层级

be born in … 出生地点
be born to a …. family / parents / sb 是……(家庭, 父母) 的孩子

X make Y + DO
X 使 Y 做…… The story made me laugh.
X make Y + ADJ
X 使 Y 变得……( = X render Y + ADJ)You can make me happy.
X make Y + NOUN
X 使 Y 成为…… Let’s make the world a better place.

“A 的 B” 结构 (B 是中心语,A 的是修饰语)

(1) A = 有生命体:A’s B
(people’s voices, my friend’s company, a dog’s happiness)
(2) A = 时间:A’s B
(two hours’ drive; five minutes’ walk; today’s newspaper)
(3) A = 无生命体:the B prep A
(the development of economy, an answer to the question, an increase in population)
(4) A 的 = 简单的限定语: 用形容词修饰 B
(economic growth, an independent child)
(5) A 的 = 过于复杂的限定语:用形容词短语、分词短语、或定语从句修饰 B
(a child independent of parents, people driving to work every day, a book borrowed from the library, a book that we borrowed from the library, people who drive to work every day)

a solution to sth. 解决某事物的方案
a key to the door 开门的钥匙
an answer to a question 某个问题的一个答案
a means to do sth 一个做某事的方法
a way to do sth 一个做某事的方法

traffic congestion 交通堵塞

excellent academic performance 优异的学习表现

希望 hope
hope to do sth 希望做某事
hope for sth 希望得到……
hope that …… 希望……
❌ hope sb to do sth
✅ expect sb to do sth
✅ want sb to do sth
✅ require sb to do sth
look forward to sth. 期待某事
look forward to doing sth. 期待做某事
be keen that sb should do sth 盼望某人做某事
= be keen on sb’s doing sth
= be keen for sb to do sth

economic 与(社会)经济有关的,与经济学有关的
economical 节约的,省钱的
financial (个人)财务的,(政府/国家)财政的
achieve financial independence 实现经济独立
become financially independent 实现经济独立

during the rush hour 在交通高峰期

X 影响 Y
X affect Y
= X have/make an effect on Y (直接效果)
X influence Y
= X have/make an influence on Y(潜移默化的影响)
X impact Y
= X have/make an impact on Y (范围大或程度深的冲击)

▲ have/make 可以替换成 exert(施加)或 impose(强加)

X *be* environment-conscious / health- / society-
X 具有环境 / 健康 / 社会意识
= X *be* environmentally conscious
(conscious = aware)

environment-friendly = environmentally friendly = eco-friendly 对环境友好的;环保的

a chance to do sth 一个做某事的机会
the chance of doing sth 做某事的可能性

achieve all-around development 实现全面发展
become well-rounded 成为全面发展的人才

X *be* addicted to Y X 对 Y 上瘾
X *be* obsessed with Y X 对 Y 着迷
X indulge in Y X 沉溺于 Y

为了……;以便于……(目的)
in order to do sth
to do sth
so as to do sth
so that 从句(须放在主句后面)

X adapt Y to Z X 使 Y 适应 Z
= Y *be* adapted to Z (by X)
= Y adapt to Z Y 适应 Z

X *be* the prerequisite for Y X 是 Y 的前提条件
X lay the foundation for Y X 为 Y 打下基础

X *be* beneficial to Y X 对 Y 有好处
= X *be* advantageous to Y

X *be* detrimental to Y X 对 Y 有坏处
= X *be* disadvantageous to Y

X encourage Y to do sth
X motivate Y to do sth
X mobilize Y to do sth
X organize Y to do sth

pirated adj. 盗版的 a pirated DVD 一张盗版DVD
piracy 盗版现象 (n.)

X *be* popular with Y X 受 Y 的欢迎
X win/find favor with Y X 受 Y 的青睐
X lose favor with Y X 失去 Y 的喜爱

entertaining / recreational adj. 娱乐的,消遣的

a variety show 综艺节目
media report 媒体报道

a sense of responsibility 责任感
a sense of humor 幽默感
a sense of achievement 成就感
a sense of belonging 归属感

方式状语表达法
通过……;靠……;用……;利用……(方式)

by doing sth 通过做某事
through sth 通过某事
through sb 通过某人
via sth 通过(科技手段)send pictures via WeChat;经由(某地方)fly to Tokyo via Seoul
with sth 用 (某种工具) with a pen
using sth 利用 (工具或手段)using computers
with the use of 利用(工具或手段)
in sth 用 (抽象名词) write in ink, talk in English
by sth 乘 / 骑 / 坐 (交通工具,不加冠词);on foot 步行

sth *be* adj to do 系表结构 + to do
某物是……的去……
sth 是被……的,但是要用 to do 主动表被动,不用 to be done
The task is easy to finish. 这项任务容易(被)完成。
The problem is very difficult to solve. 这个问题很难(被)解决。

关于……;就……而言
in terms of…
regarding…
with regard/respect to…
in regard/respect to…
as regards…
as far as … *be* concerned
considering… 考虑到……
in the light of … 考虑到……
on the basis of … 以……为依据
according to … 根据……(信息来源/规定等)

反向表达
rather than 而不是……(注意平行)
He is shy rather than impolite.
I like pizza rather than noodles.
He would like to travel rather than work.

instead of + 名词 / 动名词
He went back home instead of staying at the bar.

far from + 形容词 = 其反义词
She is far from clever.

X *be* related to Y <—> X *be* unrelated to Y
X *be* relevant to Y <—> X *be* irrelevant to Y
X have something to do with Y <—> X have nothing to do with Y

X 专修 Y
X specialize in Y
X major in Y

X make contribution to Y
= X contribute to Y

noun + doing… = noun doing… = noun that / who … 是一个以 noun 为中心语的名词短语, doing 是这个名词的的修饰语 (「正在做某事的某人」, 而不是 「某人做某事」).

a baby crying in the car

表达「某人做某事」这个事实很重要:
(1) The fact / idea that S V is important;
(2) It is important for sb to do … / We consider it important for sb to do sth (把 it 放在主语或宾语的位置上, 把 for sb to do 放在本句的句末);
(3) Doing sth is important. 去掉「某人」, 直接用动作做主语, 注意主语应使用动名词形式 doing, 而不是动词原形.
⚠️ Sb doing sth is important. = 做某事的某人很重要 = 某人很重要 ≠ 「某人做某事」这个事实很重要.
The old man standing over there is very important.

做家务的人们
❌ people who doing housework (从句也必须是主谓完整的句子, 这里谓语缺 be 动词 👉 进行时 = be + 现在分词)
✅ people who do housework
✅ people who are doing housework
✅ people doing housework

一个在校学习的科目
❌ a subject that learning at school (应该是被动, 且从句子不完整)
❌ a subject that learned at school (从句也必须是主谓完整的句子, 这里谓语缺 be 动词 👉 被动语态 = be + 过去分词)
✅ a subject that is learned at school
✅ a subject learned at school

…..🍜………… and / but / or 🍕
平行结构必须同时满足: (1) 形式对称 (词性、结构、本质一致 > 外形一致), (2) 内容对称 (意义相关, 功能相当).

ZONE 10

全球化

assimilate / integrate into (动) 融入
country of origin / native country (名) 祖国
culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (名) 不同的文化和语言背景
cross-cultural communication / interaction (名) 跨文化交流
cultural assimilation (名) 文化同化
cultural background (名) 文化背景
cultural clash (名) 文化冲突, 文化碰撞
cultural differences (名) 文化差异
cultural diversity (名) 文化多元性
cultural heritage (名) 文化遗产
cultural identity (名) 文化认同感
cultural impact (名) 文化 影响
cultural sustainability (名) 文化可延续性
cultural tradition (名) 文化传统
minority culture (名) 少数文化
minority ethnic group (名) 少数民族
minority language (名) 少数语言
global integration (名) 全球一体化
global village (名) 地球村
globalised world (名) 全球化的世界
historic places / sites (名) 历史遗址
home country / native country (名) 祖国
host community / society (名) 当地 社区
impoverished / underdeveloped country (名) 贫穷 国家 / 欠发达国家
industrialised / developed country (名) 工业化国家 / 发达国家
language barrier (名) 语言障碍
language difference / gap (名) 语言差异
multi-cultural society (名) 多元文化社会
multicultural setting / environment (名) 多元文化环境
multiracial / multi-ethnic (形) 多民族 的
nationals / citizens (名) 国民, 公民
native language / mother tongue (名) 母语
on a global scale (状语) 全球 范围
tourism industry / travel industry (名) 旅游业
tourist attractions (名) 旅游 景点
tourist destinations (名) 旅游胜地
transition countries (名) 经济转型的国家
western culture (名) 西方文化
westernisation (名) 西方化

政府

authorities (名) 权力机构
budget constraint (名) 预算
deprived / disadvantaged people (名) 贫困人口
for-profit corporation (名) 私人企业
financial aid / assistance (名) 经济资助
government agencies / officials (名) 政府官员
government budget (名) 政府预算
government funding / spending (名) 政府投资
income disparity / inequality / wealth imbalance (名) 收入不均
misspending / misallocation / misuse (名) 误用
people from low-income / low socio-economic backgrounds (名) 低收入群体
policymaker / decision maker (名) 决策者
private sector / private enterprises (名) 私人企业
public funds / money (名) 公款
public expenditure / spending (名) 公共支出
public service (名) 公共 服务 (如交通、医疗)
regulator / lawmaker / legislator (名) 执法者
social problems/ issues (名) 社会问题
state-owned / state-run (形) 国有的, 国营的
state-funded / government-sponsored (形) 国家资助的
state sector / public sector (名) 公共行业
subsidy (名) 补助
taxpayer (名) 纳税人
underdeveloped/ impoverished countries (名) 欠发达 / 贫穷国家
utility (名) 公共 服务 (如水、电、煤气、供应)
vulnerable groups (名) 弱势群体

犯罪

bring somebody to justice (动宾短语) 使某人绳之以法
clamp down on / crack down on / curb / combat crime (动宾短语) 打击犯罪
criminal / offender / law-breaker (名) 罪犯, 违法者
commit crimes / break laws / violate laws (动宾 短语) 犯法
fine (名) 罚款
non-serious crimes / petty crimes / trivial offenses (名) 轻罪
prison terms / sentences (名) 刑罚
serious crimes (名) 严重的罪行
repeat offender/ criminal / habitual criminal (名) 惯犯
repeat offense (名) 再次犯罪
retribution / punishment / penalty (名) 惩罚
nonviolent solutions (名) 和平的方法
one-time offenders (名) 首犯

妇女

biological / physiological / sex differences (名) 生理差异
childcare responsibility / child-rearing duties (名) 照顾小孩的责任
dual-income / dual-job households (名) 父母都工作的家庭
gender appropriate (形) 性别合适的
gender balance (名) 性别平衡
gender bias / gender stereotype (名) 性别偏见
gender difference (名) 男女差异
gender equality / equity (名) 男女平等
gender imbalance/ inequality (名) 男女不平等
gender role (名) 性别 角色
household / domestic responsibilities (名) 家庭责任
household / domestic chores (名) 家务
male-dominated (形) 男性主导的
masculinity (名) 男子气概
physical capabilities (名) 体能
sex ratio (名) 性别比例
sex discrimination (名) 性别歧视

老年人口

ageing population (名) 老龄人口
ageing society / population ageing (名) 人口老龄化
caregivers (名) 护理工作人员
health care (名) 健康护理
late years (名) 晚年
pension / superannuation (名) 养老金
retiree / retired people (名) 退休人员
retirement age (名) 退休年龄
retirement homes / rest homes / older people’s homes / nursing homes (名) 养老院
sense of exclusion / sense of isolation (名) 被孤立或者被抛弃的感觉
the elderly / senior people / older people (名) 老年人
younger generation (名) 年轻一代

媒体

actual violence (名) 真实暴力
aggressive (形) 好斗的, 激烈的
audience / viewer (名) 观众
censor (动) 删除, 审查 (新闻、 电视节目等)
copycat crimes (名) 模仿 犯罪
current issues / current affairs (名) 时事
desensitise (动) 使 (某人) 对…… 不敏感
downplay (动) 轻描淡写
give an exaggerated account of (动) 夸大
exposure to violence (名) 接触 暴力
media coverage (名) 媒体 报道
media hype (名) 媒体 炒作
media industry (名) 媒体 行业
media organisations (名) 媒体 机构
media-saturated society / world (名) 充斥媒体信息的社会 / 世界
media violence (名) 媒体 暴力
news agencies (名) 新闻 制作 单位
news media (名) 新闻 媒体
news story / report / item (名) 新闻 报道
newsworthy (形) 有 新闻 价值 的
objectionable content (名) 不妥的内容
paparazzi (名) 狗 仔 队
prime-time (名) 黄金时段
social media website / social networking website (名) 社交 网络
the press/ media (名) 媒体
print media (名) 印刷 媒体 (主要 包括 报纸 和 杂志)
sexual content (名) 色情内容
television violence / violence on television (名) 电视暴力
the television industry (名) 电视行业
victim (名) 受害者
violent crime (名) 暴力犯罪

环境保护

alternative/ renewable resource (名) 可更新能源 (如太阳能)
anti-pollution policies (名) 治污政策
biodegradable materials (名) 可分解材料
carbon emissions (名) 碳 排放
carbon footprint (名) 碳 足迹
ecological sustainability (名) 生态持续性
ecosystem (名) 生态系统
energy efficient (形) 节能的
energy inefficient/ intensive (形) 耗能的
environmental awareness (名) 环境意识
environmental degradation (名) 环境恶化
environmental effect/ impact (名) 对环境产生的后果和影响
environmental protection (名) 环境 保护
environmental responsibility (名) 环境 责任
environmental standards (名) 环境 标准
environmentally benign/ friendly/ nature-friendly (形) 环保的
global warming (名) 全球 变暖
green gas emissions (名) 温室 气体 排放
natural resources (名) 自然资源
nature conservation (名) 自然维护
pollution reduction / mitigation measure (名) 污染减排 / 缓解措施
resource-intensive (形) 消耗资源的
wildlife habitat (名) 野生生物栖息地
the awareness / consciousness of sth 对……的意识
awareness / consciousness of environmental protection 环保意识
raise / improve one’s awareness of sth 提高某人对某事的意识
the improved awareness of sth 提高了的……意识; 更强的……意识
energy 能量
energy source(s) / source(s) of energy 能源 = 能量的来源
fuel(s) 燃料
preserve these resources 保护资源
economize on sth 节约使用某物
research and develop 研发 (研究和开发)
develop a new drug 研发新药
alternative energy (sources) 可替代能源
solar power / energy 太阳能
wind power / energy 风能
tidal energy 潮汐能
nuclear energy / power 核能
「geo- 与地有关的」 geography 地理学 geometry 几何学
「-therm- 与热量、温度有关」thermos 保温瓶 thermoregulation 温度控制; 体温调节
regulate vt. 控制; 调节; 管控 regulation(s) n. 管理; 条规; 控制; 调节
geothermal power / energy 地热
combat 对抗 vt.
environmental deterioration n. 环境恶化 (= environmental degradation)
upgrade vt. 升级 <--> degrade vt. 使……恶化; 使……受侮辱
globe n. 球体, 地球
global adj 全球的, 全局的 <--> local adj. 局部的
greenhouse effect n. 温室效应
greenhouse gases n. 温室气体
carbon dioxide n. 二氧化碳
global warming n. 全球变暖
climate n. 气候 change n. 变化
climate change n. 气候变化
water / air pollution 水 / 空气污染
pollution = contamination n. 污染 (现象, 结果)
pollute = contaminate vt. 污染
pollutant n. 污染物 = contaminant
toxic adj. 有毒的
discharge n. / v. 排放
sewage (= waste water) n. 污水
emit vt. 放出; 排放 n. emission(s) n. 排放 carbon dioxide emissions 二氧化碳排放
exhaust (=waste gas(es)) n. 废气 (= fumes)
exhaust emissions 废气排放 n.
car exhaust = car fumes n. 汽车尾气
factory exhaust / fumes n. 工厂废气
deforestation n. 森林退化; 砍伐森林
species n. 物种
extinction n. 灭绝
extinct adj. 灭绝的, 熄灭的
the extinction of species 物种灭绝

生活方式

commuter(名) 上下班的人
commercial hub(名) 商业中心
home-working / telecommuting / teleworking / working from home (名) 在家工作
industrial area / zone (名) 工业区
land-scarce (形) 土地稀缺的
metropolis (名) 大城市
pace of work (名) 工作 节奏
pace of life (名) 生活 节奏
public transport / transit (名) 公共交通
relaxed lifestyle (名) 悠闲 的 生活方式
rural areas (名) 郊区
rural dweller (名) 乡镇 居民
rural-urban disparity (名) 城乡 差距
sense of alienation (名) 隔离 感
spiritual life (名) 精神 生活
stressful (形) 带来压力的
stress-induced (形) 由压力引发的
traffic jam / congestion (名) 交通堵塞
urban lifestyle (名) 城市 的 生活方式
urban / city dweller (名) 城市居民
wage earner/ breadwinner (名) 赚取收入的人

科技

advanced / latest / up-to-date / high technology (名) 先进科技
computer literacy (名) 电脑熟悉程度
digital literacy (名) 对数字技术的熟悉程度
emerging technology (名) 新兴科技
hand-held device (名) 手提 用品 (手机、 笔记本 等)
human/ personal interaction (名) 人与 人的 交流
high technology (名) 高科技
Internet / web economy (名) 网络经济
knowledge-based / technology-focused (形) 重视知识/ 技术的
modern technology (名) 当代科技
old-style / traditional / conventional / old-fashioned (形) 传统的, 过时的
paperless office (名) 不用 纸 的 办公室
personalised experiences (名) 个人化的体验
social isolation (名) 社会隔离感
technological achievement / advance (名) 科技 成就/ 发展
technological breakthrough (名) 科技 突破
technological development (名) 科技 发展
technological advantages (名) 科技 优势
technological innovation/ improvement (名) 科技 革新
telecommuting / teleworking (名) 在家 上班
virtual world (名) 虚拟 世界

动物

animal testing / animal-based research / animal experimentation (名) 动物 试验, 动物研究
animal maltreatment / animal mistreatment / animal cruelty / animal abuse (名) 虐待动物
animal pain / animal suffering (名) 动物 痛苦
animal rights / animal welfare (名) 动物 权益
animal rights activists / animal rights campaigners (名) 动物 权益 保护 者
conserve (动) 保护
die out / vanish (动) 灭绝
domestic animals (名) 家养动物
endangered / threatened / rare animals (名) 濒临灭绝的动物
extinct (形) 灭绝 的 farm animals (名) 农场 动物
food chain (名) 食物链
higher animals / advanced animals (名) 高等动物
laboratory (lab) animals (名) 实验室 动物
natural habitat (名) 自然 栖息 地
natural surroundings / environment (名) 自然环境
pet / companion animals (名) 宠物
sentient (形) 有知觉 的
wild animals / wildlife (名) 野生动物
raise awareness of wildlife conservation (动宾 短语) 提高野生动物保护的意识

教育

adolescence (名) 青年时期
adulthood (名) 成年 期
age-appropriate (形) 适龄的
aggressive (形) 具有攻击性的
anti-social (形) 反社会的
at school (介 宾 短语) 在 学校
at college / university (介宾短语) 在大学
at / from an early age (介宾短语) 孩提时候起
bullying (名) (中学生之间的) 恐吓
compulsory schooling / education (名) 义务教育
core subject (名) 主科
disposition / nature / predisposition (名) 天性
drop out of (动) 退学
early adulthood (名) 成年期早期
enroll on/ for (动) 注册 课程
environmental factor (名) 环境 因素
extra-curricular activities (名) 课外活动
family / home environment (名) 家庭环境
field work / practical work / internship (名) 实习
first-hand experience / knowledge (名) 亲身体验
formal education / schooling (名) 正式教育
formative years (名) 成长期
hands-on / practical experience (名) 实践经验
heredity (名) 遗传
impressionable (形) 容易受人 影响 的
indulgent parents (名) 溺爱 小孩 的 父母
innate / inborn / inherited / endowed (形) 天生的, 与生俱来的
job market / labour market (名) 职 场
juvenile delinquency / youth crime (名) 青少年犯罪
learning difficulty / disorder (名) 学习困难
neglectful parents (名) 不称职的父母
newborn / infant (名) 婴儿
nurturing parents (名) 抚育型父母
obedient (形) 顺从的
peer influence / peer effect (名) 同龄人的影响
peer learning (名) 同龄人学习
peer pressure (名) 来自同龄人的压力
preschoolers (名) 学龄前 小孩
puberty (名) 青春期
pupil / schoolchildren (名) 小学儿童
rebellious (形) 背叛 的
school-age children (名) 适龄儿童
school performance / academic records (名) 学业表现 / 成绩单
school-to-work transition (名) 从学校到工作的适应期
secondary education / schooling (名) 中学教育
self-control / self-discipline (名) 自我控制, 自我约束
socio-economic background / status (名) 家庭 背景
specialist teacher (名) 专业教师
student life (名) 学生生活 / 生涯
teen years / adolescence (名) 青少年时期
tertiary / university / college education (名) 大学教育
toddler (名) 学步的小孩
vocational / job training (名) 职业培训
vocational skill / job skill (名) 职业技能

ZONE 11

「穿衣规则 dress code / rules with regard to clothing」(BF116) 阅读材料:
(1) What is the Point of School Uniform?
(2) Dress Code
相关词汇
dress code
school uniform
peer pressure
keep up with the Joneses
human physical appearance
No one would deny the fact that clothing plays an indispensable role in human physical appearance.
a social significance
depending on circumstance and occasion
dress norms
personal or cultural identity
comfort and functionality
inappropriate clothing items
create a safer and more professional environment
impede on students’ right to self-expression
white-collar workplace clothing
in a corporate office
outfits
formal wear
casual clothes
in law offices and financial sector offices
garments
give students a sense of belonging to a particular school
a badge of pride,
creates an identity for a school
in the community = in society
dress smartly 穿着得体
take pride in = be proud of 以……为豪
improve learning by reducing distraction, sharpening focus on schoolwork and making the classroom a more serious environment, allowing students to perform better academically
in the latest trend
put a great deal of financial pressure / strain on sb 给某人造成很大的经济压力
miss school
due to fear of …
be directly linked to…
having a uniform can be a safety net for many students
A strict uniform gives the impression that … 传递一种…………的印象
maintain a sense of order at school 维持学校内的秩序感
smart dress code 合适/适宜的穿衣规则
give sb a sense of belonging
take away the pressure of what to wear
deter the bullies / criminals

a person who is willing to do what other group members want (BF118)

a conformist
a conventionalist
to be acquiescent
to be compliant
to be cooperative
to be agreeable [to (doing) sth.]
to be amenable
to be accommodating
to be orthodox
to be like-minded
to be consistent with …
to be compatible with …
to be unanimous [in (doing) sth.]
to be concordant with …
to be congruent/congruous with …
to be in harmony with …
to be in agreement with …
to be in accord with …
to be in concord with …
to accord with …
to do sth out of solidarity with …
to arrive at unanimity
to reach consensus
to strengthen cohesion

a person who often strongly insists that things should be done in a way that is different from what the group wants to do (BF118)

a maverick
a nonconformist
a dissenter
a rebel
a heretic
an objector
a disputant
to be unorthodox
to be unconventional
to be dissentient
to be irreconcilable
to be divergent from …
to be independent-minded
to be inconsistent with …
to be incongruous with …
to be incompatible with …
to be at odds with …
to be at variance with …
to be in conflict with …
to be in disagreement with …
to be in opposition to …
to oppose… / to discord with …

… do not match up to one’s expectations

条件句的虚拟语气:
与现在事实相反:
If …(did / were)… , ….(would / should / could / might + 动词原形)….
与过去事实相反:
If …(had done / had been)… , …(would / should / could / might + have done / have been)….
与将来事实相反:
If … (were to + 动词原形) … , … (would / should / could / might + 动词原形) …

ZONE 12

头脑风暴指导 INSTRUCTIONS FOR BRAINSTORMING

培养「二分法」思维方式

(1) 一实一虚:
实际方面: 物质的、身体的、金钱的、日常生活的、学习成绩 (学业表现) 的、实际能力的;
抽象方面: 文化的/文明的、精神的 / 心理的、社会地位、感受 (幸福感、成就感、安全感、归属感)、思想/道德/伦理的、全面发展 (素质教育) 的;

(2) 负到零、零到正:
advantages
从不好到正常: 解决严重的问题、避免致命的错误、消除紧急/危急状况 (纠正意义);
从正常到更好: 加强、改善、提高、锦上添花 (附加意义)
disadvantages
从正常到不好: 影响价值观、短期影响 (影响学习效果)
从不好到更差: 导致犯罪、长期影响 (人生观产生偏差, 厌学)

(3) 坐标系 ( X / Y ):
一般可以分析「influence / impact / effect」类话题时可以使用这种思维
X: 时间跨度、广度、涉及到的方面、……
Y: 程度、深度、涉及到的层面、……

Decision-making 或 plan-making 话题的考虑因素:
1. 过程所需时间 (越短越好)
2. 所需成本 (越低越好)
3. 效果 (a. 持续时间越长越好 b. 影响程度越深越好)
4. 对现状的干预 (a. 干预时间越短越好 b. 干预程度越浅越好)
⚠️ 1 和 4a可能有重合, 避免同时写在一篇作文中.

(4) 对「你」对「他」:
考虑话题涉及到的几个方面 (aspects, parties) 和角度 (angles)

  • 教育 —— 学生 (家长)、老师、学校;
  • 年轻人 —— 学校生活、工作 (职业生涯)、家庭 (个人生活)、社会生活;
  • 社会发展 —— 经济、科技、教育、政府、媒体(信息来源)、人民意识、…… 宏观话题 (两个时代的对比、国家、政府、经济、环保等话题): 均优先使用社会层面分析表 (Social Factors Tabulation)
  • 环境: (1) 实现可持续发展 (achieve sustainable development): 有很多自然资源 (natural resources), 比如化石燃料 (fossil fuels) [包括煤 (coal)、石油 (petroleum / oil)、天然气 ((natural) gas)], 是有限的 (limited), 是不可再生的 (non-renewable), 因此人类需要一方面保护 (preserve) 这些资源, 节约使用它们 (economize on them), 一方面研发可替代能源 (research and develop alternative energy), 比如太阳能、潮汐能、核能、风能、地热等等.
    (2) 对抗环境恶化 (combat environmental degradation)
  • 学生学习 —— 学业表现 (学习成绩)、全面发展 (除学习成绩之外的领域, 课外活动的参与、社会实践的机会、个人能力的培养、兴趣爱好的发展、……);
    孩子的学习、时间分配、家长老师如何对待孩子、……
    Point 1. 学业表现 (academic performance) – 学习压力、学习热情 (兴趣)、时间投入、……
    Point 2. 全面发展 (all-around development) – 爱好、特长、个人兴趣、系统训练、……
    可以写正面 (有利于学业表现、全面发展), 也可以写负面 (不利于学业表现、全面发展).
  • 交友 —— 数量、质量 || 玩乐的、帮忙的;
  • 员工幸福感 / 满意度 —— 薪资、未来发展 (个人成长)、人际关系、工作环境、成就感/归属感;
  • 个人生活幸福感 —— 经济收入、教育机会、工作机会、娱乐生活、人际交往 (亲朋好友)、社会公共服务 (治安、医疗、交通、便利设施、商业);
  • 工作经验 —— 可迁移技能; 专业领域知识 work experience (A: transferrable skills (abilities that are useful across professions) ~ communication skills, leadership, organizational skills B: expertise in a specific field ~ specialized knowledge)
  • 团队协作 —— 凝聚力 (归属感)、效率、团队氛围 (人际关系、创造力)